What’s important about this scientist is that he was a true research pioneer in the area of X-ray diffraction for crystal analysis, an interest partly fed by his fascination with this new technology. Over time, data collection, computation, and statistical analysis using modern computers have considerably altered heat treatment practices since Dr. Bain first compiled his findings on the effects of cementite (a carbon concentrate) during tempering. The advanced X-ray diffraction technologies demonstrated in recent literature lead me to believe that these earlier metallurgical standards must be revised, not only to boost the performance of tempering and stress relief processes but to make them more cost-effective.
1Paxton, H. W. & Austin J. B. Historical account of the contributions of E. C. Bain. Metallurgical Transactions. 1973.